Three of America's greatest philosopher-sages - Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau and Walt Whitman - drew a lot of their inspiration from Vedantic ideas, where direct spiritual experience is valued more than dogmatic learning about virgin birth, resurrection and miracles.
Preliminary examination of blood stains do not confirm the presence of blood. It merely indicates that the positive stain might be due to blood.
In order to confirm the identity of blood, there are certain crystal and spectroscopic tests that are regularly employed in the forensic science laboratories.
1. Takayama Test: Reagent Preparation:
Standard Glucose Solution (100g/100ml) 3 ml
10% Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) 3 ml
Pyridine 3 ml
Distilled Water 7 ml
Reagents should be made fresh daily.
1. Place material to be tested on a microscopic slide and cover with a cover slip.
2. Add a drop of Takayama Reagentand allow to flow under the cover slip.
3. Warm slide gently at 65oC for 10-20 seconds
4. Allow to cool and observe under microscope at 100X magnification.
The appearance of pink needle shaped crystals of pyridine hemochromogen (Pyridine ferroprotoprophyrin) is positive reaction for heme.
2. Teichmann’s Test: Reagent Preparation:
Potassium Chloride or 0.1 g
It is often necessary in various scientific disciplines to prepare sketches of molecules for project reports, research papers and teaching assignments, etc. Drawing a sketch also helps in developing the concepts in science, for example, the bonding patter in organic molecules, their valencies, etc. Educators and researchers regularly use sketches in their daily work. With the development of computing computer based sketching has become more common and more and more people are using computers for everything for drug design, manufacturing and publications of results. Several tools are available for sketching. Here, we will see how small molecules can be drawn using an exciting and free software ‘ACDChem Sketch’ from ACD Labs. Lets begin by drawing a simple molecule ‘Indole’. The pictures below are self explaining.
You can build a larger molecule by adding side chains at the desired positions on the main Indole ring. The method is shown below.